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山东省临朐县药用植物资源调查与开发利用研究

  摘要:通过实地调查、与当地药农交流,结合查阅文献,标本的采集、鉴定以及数据统计分析等方法,调查临朐县药用植物的资源分布情况。临朐县共有药用植物86科305属467种;其中,蕨类植物4科4种,裸子植物3科4种,被子植物79科459种。依据功效,可将临朐药用植物分为10种类型,清热类药居多;依据入药部位,可分为6个类型,以全草类药物居多。临朐县药用植物品种繁多,蕴藏量大,但实际应用种类不多。建议在合理保护前提下,加强其开发和利用。 
  关键词:临朐;药用植物;资源调查;开发利用 
  中图分类号:S567.02(252)文献标识号:A文章编号:1001-4942(2017)12-0041-03 
  Abstract The distribution of medicinal plants in Linqu County of Shandong Province was investigated through field investigation, exchange with local medicinal herb grower, consulting literature, specimen collection, identification and statistical analysis.The results showed that there were 86 families, 305 genera and 467 species of medicinal plants in Linqu County. Among them, 4 families and 4 species belonged to ferns; 3 families and 4 species belonged to gymnosperm; a total of 79 families and 459 species belonged to angiosperms. Based on the efficacy, they could be divided into 10 types, and most were clearing heat.According to medicinal parts, they could be divided into six types, and most were whole herb.In conclusion, there are many kinds of medicinal plants in Linqu County, which are rich in reserves and resources; but there were not many kinds for practical application. It was suggested that the development and utilization of medicinal plant resources in Linqu County should be strengthened under the premise of reasonable protection. 
  Keywords Linqu; Medicinal plants; Resources investigation; Development and utilization 
  臨朐县隶属山东省潍坊市,境内地形复杂,优越的地理位置和自然环境造就了繁多的植被类型和丰富的药用植物资源,有着深度的开发价值和广泛的应用前景。为了对临朐的药用植物资源进行合理的保护及充分的开发利用,通过第四次中药资源普查,结合查阅文献,标本的采集、鉴定及数据统计分析等方法,对该区进行了系统完整的研究。 
  1 自然环境概况 
  1.1 地理位置与优势 
  临朐地理坐标东经118°14′~118°49′,北纬36°04′~36°37′,位于山东省东部,沂山北麓,弥河上游,潍坊市西南隅。地处鲁中山区边缘,为低山、丘陵、平原交错地带。境内大小山头2 000余座,500 m以上山峰约84座,以南端沂山为高点,其余山脉呈扇形向西北和东北展开,弥河、汶河两大水系及其支流多顺山谷而行,县城北部周围形成冲积平原。境内地形复杂,形成了山地居南,平川亘北,南高北低,东西隆起,呈簸箕状的地势特征,为药用植物的生长提供了优越的地理环境[1]。 
  1.2 气候 
  为温带季风型大陆性气候,四季分明,雨热同期,干湿季明显。年平均降水量700 mm左右,平均气温12.8℃,年平均日照约2 514.1 h,无霜期为203 d[1]。 

 
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